AskDefine | Define geographically

Dictionary Definition

geographically adv : with respect to geography; "they are geographically closer to the center of town"

User Contributed Dictionary

English

Adverb

  1. In a geographical manner.

Extensive Definition

Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία - geografia) is the study of the earth and its features, inhabitants, and phenomena. A literal translation would be "to describe or write about the Earth". The first person to use the word "geography" was Eratosthenes (276-194 B.C.). Four historical traditions in geographical research are the spatial analysis of natural and human phenomena (geography as a study of distribution), area studies (places and regions), study of man-land relationship, and research in earth sciences. Nonetheless, modern geography is an all-encompassing discipline that foremost seeks to understand the world and all of its human and natural complexities-- not merely where objects are, but how they have changed and come to be. As "the bridge between the human and physical sciences," geography is divided into two main branches - human geography and physical geography.

Introduction

Traditionally, geographers have been viewed the same way as cartographers and people who study place names and numbers. Although many geographers are trained in toponymy and cartology, this is not their main preoccupation. Geographers study the spatial and temporal distribution of phenomena, processes and feature as well as the interaction of humans and their environment. As space and place affect a variety of topics such as economics, health, climate, plants and animals, geography is highly interdisciplinary.
Geography as a discipline can be split broadly into two main sub fields: human geography and physical geography. The former focuses largely on the built environment and how space is created, viewed and managed by humans as well as the influence humans have on the space they occupy. The latter examines the natural environment and how the climate, vegetation & life, soil, water, and landforms are produced and interact. As a result of the two subfields using different approaches a third field has emerged, which is environmental geography. Environmental geography combines physical and human geography and looks at the interactions between the environment and humans.
The first rigorous system of latitude and longitude lines is credited to Hipparchus. He employed a sexagesimal system that was derived from Babylonian mathematics. The parallels and meridians were sub-divided into 360°, with each degree further subdivided 60′ (minutes). To measure the longitude at different location on Earth, he suggested using eclipses to determine the relative difference in time. The extensive mapping by the Romans as they explored new lands would later provide a high level of information for Ptolemy to construct detailed atlases. He extended the work of Hipparchus, using a grid system on his maps and adopting a length of 56.5 miles for a degree.
During the Middle Ages, the fall of the Roman empire led to a shift in the evolution of geography from Europe to the Islamic world. Scholars such as Idrisi (produced detailed maps), Ibn Batutta, and Ibn Khaldun provided detailed accounts of their Hajj. Further, Islamic scholars translated and interpreted the earlier works of the Romans and Greeks and established the House of Wisdom in Baghdad for this purpose. From the 3rd century onwards, Chinese methods of geographical study and writing of geographical literature became much more complex than what was found in Europe at the time (until the 13th century). the Royal Geographical Society in 1830, Russian Geographical Society in 1845, American Geographical Society in 1851, and the National Geographic Society in 1888. The influence of Immanuel Kant, Alexander von Humbolt, Carl Ritter and Paul Vidal de la Blache can be seen as a major turning point in geography from a philosophy to an academic subject.
Over the past two centuries the advancements in technology such as computers, have led to the development of geomatics and new practices such as participant observation and geostatistics being incorporated into geography's portfolio of tools. In the West during the 20th century, the discipline of geography went through four major phases: environmental determinism, regional geography, the quantitative revolution, and critical geography. The strong interdisciplinary links between geography and the sciences of geology and botany, as well as economics, sociology and demographics have also grown greatly especially as a result of Earth System Science that seeks to understand the world in a holistic view.

Some influential geographers

References

See also

Main lists: List of basic geography topics and List of geography topics

External links

sisterlinks Geography
geographically in Extremaduran: Heugrafia
geographically in Afrikaans: Geografie
geographically in Tosk Albanian: Geografie
geographically in Abkhazian: Географи
geographically in Arabic: جغرافيا
geographically in Aragonese: Cheografía
geographically in Franco-Provençal: G·eografia
geographically in Assamese: ভূগোল
geographically in Asturian: Xeografía
geographically in Guarani: Tetãnguéra
geographically in Avaric: География
geographically in Aymara: Uraqita
geographically in Azerbaijani: Coğrafiya
geographically in Bambara: Dùgùkòlòkùnnàkalan
geographically in Bengali: ভূগোল
geographically in Banyumasan: Geografi
geographically in Bashkir: География
geographically in Belarusian: Геаграфія
geographically in Belarusian (Tarashkevitsa): Геаграфія
bh:भूगोल
geographically in Central Bicolano: Heograpiya
geographically in Bavarian: Geografie
geographically in Bosnian: Geografija
geographically in Breton: Douaroniezh
geographically in Bulgarian: География
geographically in Catalan: Geografia
geographically in Chuvash: Географи
geographically in Cebuano: Heyograpiya
geographically in Czech: Geografie
geographically in Corsican: Geografia
geographically in Welsh: Daearyddiaeth
geographically in Danish: Geografi
geographically in German: Geographie
geographically in Dhivehi: ޖުޣުރާފީ
geographically in Estonian: Geograafia
geographically in Modern Greek (1453-): Γεωγραφία
geographically in Spanish: Geografía
geographically in Esperanto: Geografio
geographically in Basque: Geografia
geographically in Persian: جغرافیا
geographically in Faroese: Landafrøði
geographically in French: Géographie
geographically in Western Frisian: Geografy
geographically in Friulian: Gjeografie
geographically in Irish: Tíreolaíocht
geographically in Gan Chinese: 地理
geographically in Galician: Xeografía
geographically in Gujarati: ભૂગોળ
geographically in Korean: 지리학
geographically in Hindi: भूगोल
geographically in Upper Sorbian: Geografija
geographically in Croatian: Zemljopis
geographically in Ido: Geografio
geographically in Iloko: Heografia
geographically in Indonesian: Geografi
geographically in Interlingua (International Auxiliary Language Association): Geographia
geographically in Interlingue: Geografie
geographically in Inuktitut: ᓄᓇᐅᔪᖅ/nunaujuq
geographically in Ossetian: Географи
geographically in Icelandic: Landafræði
geographically in Italian: Geografia
geographically in Hebrew: גאוגרפיה
geographically in Javanese: Geografi
geographically in Pampanga: Geografia
geographically in Georgian: გეოგრაფია
geographically in Kashubian: Geògrafijô
geographically in Cornish: Dorydhyeth
geographically in Kirghiz: География
geographically in Swahili (macrolanguage): Jiografia
geographically in Komi: География
geographically in Haitian: Jewografi
geographically in Kurdish: Erdnîgarî
geographically in Ladino: Jeografiya
geographically in Lao: ພູມສາດ
geographically in Latin: Geographia
geographically in Latvian: Ģeogrāfija
geographically in Luxembourgish: Geographie
geographically in Lithuanian: Geografija
geographically in Ligurian: Geografia
geographically in Limburgan: Geografie
geographically in Lingala: Mambí ma mabelé
geographically in Lombard: Geugrafìa
geographically in Hungarian: Földrajztudomány
geographically in Macedonian: Географија
geographically in Malagasy: Jeografia
geographically in Malayalam: ഭൂമിശാസ്ത്രം
geographically in Maltese: Ġeografija
geographically in Marathi: भूगोल
geographically in Mazanderani: Jəögrafi / جئوگرافی
geographically in Malay (macrolanguage): Geografi
geographically in Mongolian: Газар зүй
geographically in Burmese: ပထဝီဝင္‌
nah:Cemānāhuacāyōtl
geographically in Dutch: Aardrijkskunde
geographically in Nepali: भूगोल
geographically in Japanese: 地理学
geographically in Norwegian: Geografi
geographically in Norwegian Nynorsk: Geografi
geographically in Narom: Géographie
geographically in Novial: Geografia
geographically in Occitan (post 1500): Geografia
geographically in Ndonga: Geografi
geographically in Uzbek: Geografiya
geographically in Pushto: ځمکپوهنه
geographically in Central Khmer: ភូមិវិទ្យា
geographically in Low German: Geographie
geographically in Polish: Geografia
geographically in Portuguese: Geografia
geographically in Romanian: Geografie
geographically in Vlax Romani: Phuvipen
geographically in Romansh: Geografia
geographically in Quechua: Allpa saywachi
geographically in Russian: География
geographically in Samoan: Geography
geographically in Sardinian: Geografia
geographically in Scots: Geography
geographically in Albanian: Gjeografia
geographically in Sicilian: Giografìa
geographically in Sinhala: භූගෝල විද්‍යාව
geographically in Simple English: Geography
geographically in Slovak: Geografia
geographically in Slovenian: Geografija
geographically in Somali: Juquraafi
geographically in Serbian: Географија
geographically in Serbo-Croatian: Zemljopis
geographically in Sundanese: Géografi
geographically in Finnish: Maantiede
geographically in Swedish: Geografi
geographically in Tagalog: Heograpiya
geographically in Tamil: புவியியல்
geographically in Telugu: భూగోళ శాస్త్రము
geographically in Thai: ภูมิศาสตร์
geographically in Vietnamese: Địa lý học
geographically in Tajik: Ҷуғрофия
geographically in Tok Pisin: Jiograpi
geographically in Turkish: Coğrafya
geographically in Turkmen: Geografiýa
geographically in Ukrainian: Географія
geographically in Urdu: جغرافيہ
geographically in Venetian: Giografia
geographically in Volapük: Taledav
geographically in Võro: Maatiidüs
geographically in Walloon: Djeyografeye
geographically in Waray (Philippines): Heyograpiya
geographically in Wolof: Melosuuf
geographically in Yiddish: געאגראפיע
geographically in Contenese: 地理
geographically in Zeeuws: Heografie
geographically in Samogitian: Geuograpėjė
geographically in Chinese: 地理学
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